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Oral Health A Global Perspective

by Sakshi Patkar
ORAL HEALTH
Oral health is a key indicator of overall health, wellbeing and quality of life. WHO defines oral health as “a state of being free from chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral infection and sores, periodontal (gum) disease, tooth decay, tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that limit an individual’s capacity in biting, chewing, smiling, speaking, and psychosocial wellbeing. Oral diseases are the most common noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and affect people throughout their lifetime, causing pain, discomfort, disfigurement and even death.
Oral health problems contribute significantly to the global burden of disease highlights the need for studies on oral health to be conducted in a global perspective.
ORAL HYGIENE
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION STUDY
1- The Global Burden of Disease Study 2018 estimated that oral diseases affected half of the world’s population (3.58 billion people) with dental caries (tooth decay) in permanent teeth being the most prevalent condition assessed.
2-Severe periodontal (gum) disease, which may result in tooth loss, was estimated to be the 11th most prevalent disease globally.
3-In some Asian-Pacific countries, the incidence of oral cancer (cancer of the lip and oral cavity) is within the top 3 of all cancers.
4-Social determinants have a strong impact on oral health.
5-Behavioural risk factors for oral diseases are shared with other major NCDs, such as an unhealthy diet high in free sugars, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol.
6-Poor oral hygiene and inadequate exposure to fluoride have negative effects on oral health.
7-Dental treatment is costly, averaging 5% of total health expenditure and 20% of out-of-pocket health expenditure in most high-income countries.
8-The oral health care demands are beyond the capacities of the health care systems in most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs).
ORAL DISEASES
• Dental cause( tooth decay)
•Periodontal gum
•Tooth loss
•Oral cancer
•Oral manifestation of HIV infection
•Oral dental trauma
•Noma
•Cleft lip and palate
•NCD related
Prevention
1-promoting a well-balanced diet:
low in free sugars to prevent the development of dental caries, premature tooth loss, and other diet-related NCDs; with adequate fruit and vegetable intake, which may have a protective role in oral cancer prevention
2- Reducing smoking, the use of smokeless tobacco including chewing of areca nuts, and alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of oral cancers, periodontal disease, and tooth loss
3- Encouraging the use of protective equipment when doing sports and traveling in motor vehicles to reduce the risk of facial injuries.

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